Ragas cited in the article


Click on a Raga to see its description:
Adana Bhairav Darbari Kanada Malhar Ramkali Shuddha Kalyan
Bahar Bhairavi Jaunpuri Marva Sarang Sohini
Bilaval Bhoopali Kedar Puria Shree Todi



Recommended: Read the following article first!
Note on pitch and ornament:

In a very real sense, the essence of Hindustani music lies in the intonation of the notes of the Raga and the ornaments used in the course of articulating those notes. There are, of course, several other elements to be correctly managed to give life to a Raga, however, these two - pitch and ornamentation - are the most basic of all.

Except for the first and fifth notes, the pitches of notes used in Hindustani music are not fixed. Indeed, even the first and fifth notes were not fixed in pitch in ancient times: they became so only during the medieval period, as a result of modifications to the system brought about by Amir Khusrau.

In ancient times, there was a system of absolute pitch mesurement by means of a particular flute that the Gandharva used as a pitch pite. This flute was known as "Vasu" (pronunciation: VUH-su, "u" as in "put"). It had fixed dimensions, with the distance from the embrochure to the first finger hole being "18 fingers". A "finger" was a fixed measurement.

Subsequently, however, with the decline of the Sanskrit tradition (due to the rise of Buddhism), the Vasu went out of vogue and there was no longer a standard and recognised absolute pitch from which other pitches took their reference. So any convenient pitch could be regarded as the tonic note, called the "Sa" (pronunciation: SAA) note.

However, the early division of the heptad into 22 Shruti (pronunciation: SHRU-ti, "u" as in "put") (which may, for the time being and for want of a better expression, be called microtones) remained in vogue. [Indian musicological texts do not use the term "octave"; instead, the term used is "Saptaka" (pronunciation: SUHP-tuh-kuh), meaning the compass of the seven notes - transliterated for the purposes of this article as "heptad".]

Why were there 22 Shruti? The answer is simple to understand. It ancient times, there were three standard intervals:
  • Kshudrantara (pronunciation: KSHUD-raan-tuh-ruh, the first "u" as in "put", second and third "u" as in "but") - This generally corresponded to a "semitone", as the smallest interval is currently known in western music.
  • Madhyantara (pronunciation: MUHD-yaan-tuh-ruh, the first "u" as in "put", second and third "u" as in "but") - an interval midway between the Kshudrantara and Brhadantara, generally one and a half times greater than the Khudrantara.
  • Brhadantara (pronunciation: BR-HUD-aan-tuh-ruh) - about two Kshudrantara, that is to say, generally corresponding to what is currently known as a "whole tone" in western music.
The heptad of Indian art music comprised (and comprises) twenty two Shruti because 22 is the smallest WHOLE NUMBER that can be used to accommodate all the three types of Shruti. If a Kshudrantara is considered to be a musical (pitchwise) unit (or interval) of 1, the Brhadantara would be an unit of 2 but the Madhyantara would be an inconvenient fractional unit of one and a half. Rather, it is much easier to consider the Kshudrantara as an unit of 2, so that a Madhyantara would be an unit of 3 and a Brhadantara would be an unit of 2 Shruti.

The note names of Indian art music, in DESCENDING order were:

Sa (pronunciation: SAA)    4Shruti
Ni (pronunciation: NII)    2Shruti
Dha (pronunciation: DHAA)    3Shruti
Pa (pronunciation: PAA)    4Shruti
Ma (pronunciation: MAA)    4Shruti
Ga (pronunciation: GAA)    2Shruti
Re (pronunciation: RAY)    3Shruti
Total    22Shruti

Simple! It is worth noting that our ancient and medieval musicological Texts consider Shruti and notes in DESCENDING order - a point unfortunately missed by many modern musicologists of the modern era, including Pandit Bhatkhande himself. For example, when our Texts say that Sa has 4 Shruti, it means that the distance from Sa to Ni is 4 Shruti. Pandit Bhatkhande and his followers, however, err by misunderstanding this point: they think the Texts mean the distance from Sa to Re is 4 Shruti. In reality, the ascending distance from Sa to Re is 3 Shruti, because Re has 3 Shruti. As a result of this misunderstanding, a good deal of twentieth century musicological analysis of these scholars is fundamentally flawed. The only context where these are in the ascending order is when the ancient musicologists speak of the Gandharagrama - the basis of a scale (i.e., the plan of a layout of the notes within the heptad) that went out of use a long time ago. A discussion of this format or layout, as also of the other two (Madhyamagrama, which is also extinct today and Shadjagrama which is the only one in vogue today and is characterised by there being a distance of 13 Shruti between Pa and Sa), is beyond the scope of this article, as is another important point to remember and, for the time being, accept, viz.: the absolute values of Shruti are not constant. This means that one Shruti may be greater or lesser than another.

It is said by many scholars that the note names Sa, Re and so on are abbreviated forms of words like Shadja, Rshabha, etc. Indeed, there are medieval Texts that have also said this. Unfortunately, this is incorrect. The words, the so-called abbreviated forms of which are Sa, Re and so on, are merely fanciful inventions of a later period. The fact is, the names Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha and Ni are themselves very old, and have been coined by the Gandharva musician-musicologists of ancient times. Contrary to popular belief, they are not abbreviations of words. The following table gives an outline of the incorrect popular view and a far more plausible view, advocated by the pioneering twentieth century musicologist Dr. Bimal Roy D.Litt. (Hony.), with whom both Dr Chintamani Rath and Prof Basavi Mukerji had the good fortune to study.

Note Incorrect popular understanding Dr Bimal Roy's theory
Sa Shadja
(pronunciation: SHUD-juh)
"that from which six (notes) are born" Sa-Re-Ga are the three phonetic sounds in the word "Svarga" meaning "heaven", which actually meant the upper reaches of inhabitable parts of mountains, where lived, among others, the Devata and the Gandharva people.

[How musical is a bull? How is an ascetic associated with music?]
Re Rshabha
(pronunciation: HRSHUH-bhuh)
either a bull or an ascetic (according to context)
Ga Gandhara
(pronunciation: gaan-Dhaa-ruh)
of the Gandharva people
Ma Madhyama
(pronunciation: MUH-dhyum-uh)
(the note in the) middle Ma and Dha are the two phonetic sounds in the word "Madhya" meaning "middle", referring to the middle heights of mountains, where lived, among others, the Pitara, Mitara, Yaksha and Varuna people.
Pa: this was the fifth note Panchama.

[What is "Dhaivata?" What musical association does it carry?]
Pa Panchama
(pronunciation: PUN-chuh-muh)
fifth (note)
Dha Dhaivata
(pronunciation: DHUH-i-vuh-tuh)
?
(meaning not known)
Ni Nishada
(pronunciation:
Ni-SHAA-duh)
hunter Ni is the first phonetic sound (the only one needed to cover a single remaining note) in the word "Neecha", meaning "low", referring to the lower or plain lands, where dwelt, among others, the Rshi and the Manushya people.

[Why hunter, of all people/callings?]


After the modification in notes used in Hindustani music made by Amir Khusrau, the notes Ga and Ni changed their character as compared with their earlier qualities. Earlier, Ga and Ni had two Shruti each. However, Amir Khusrau started with the "Yaman" mode (pronunciation: yuh-MUHN), where Ga and Ni were higher than the earlier Ga and Ni by about two Shruti each, thus making these two notes of four Shruti each. He called the notes of the Yaman mode the "Chadhi" (pronunciation: CHUH-dee) or "Kadhi" (pronunciation: KUH-dee) notes, meaning "high" (in pitch) notes. He made Sa and Pa fixed notes and introduced a flattened form of each of the other notes, calling these the "Komal" forms. The fixed (descending) distance between Pa and Sa was (and is) 13 Shruti.

Over time, the Komal Ma of Amir Khusrau came to be accepted as the Shuddha form of Ma and the Ma used in the Yaman mode (which is two Shruti lower than Pa and so higher than Komal Ma by two Shruti) became the altered form. [Pronunciation of "Shuddha": SHUd-dhuh, the first u" as in "put", the second "u" as in "but". Pronunciation of "Komal": KOH-mul]

The notes Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha and Ni are today known as "Shuddha Svara" or "pure notes". This expression is used in contradistinction to "Vikrta Svara" or "altered notes". [Pronunciation of "Vikrta": VI-kr-tuh]. Thus Re may be flattened to get the Vikrta Svara "Komal Re". Only, because Re has three Shruti, there can be three forms of Komal Re, thus:-

  • Shuddha Re
    • Komal Re - this is quite high, being very near Shuddha Re. Ragas like Shree and Marva use this form of Komal Re
    • Komal Re - this is quite low in pitch, being quite close to Sa. Ragas like Bhairav and Bhairavi and others use this Re, which is why, in these Raga, Re is not used in the ascent: it is approached only "from above", i.g., with a very quick and very soft touch of Ga.
  • Sa

  • In like manner, there can be three forms of Komal Dha and two forms of Komal Ga and Komal Ni. There can also be three forms of Teevra Ma. "Teevra" refers to the "sharpened" form of Ma. [Pronunciation of "Teevra": TEE-vruh].

    The following table illustrates the present day notes used in Hindustani music:-

    Notation Notes Comments
    S
  • Sa
  •  
    N
    • (Shuddha) Ni
    • (Shuddha) Ni
    Either of these two Shruti could be Shuddha Ni. Because Sa is now a fixed note, these Shruti are in the Ni domain. Yaman Raga (for example) uses the higher pitched Shuddha Ni but Bihag Raga uses the lower pitched Shuddha Ni.
    N
    • (Komal) Ni
    • (Komal) Ni
    Either of these two Shruti could be Komal Ni. Again, because Sa is now a fixed note, these Shruti are in the Ni domain. In fact, Miyan-Malhar Raga uses both: in its phrase N-D-N-S, the actual sequence in a slow passage is N-D-N-N-S, where the first (descending) N is the lower Komal Ni but the next N (ascending to Shuddha Ni) is the higher Komal Ni. The Shuddha Ni itself is the lower Shuddha Ni, somewhat like the one Bihag uses.
    D
    • (Shuddha) Dha
    • (Shuddha) Dha
    Either of these Shruti could be Shuddha Dha. For example, Deshkar Raga and Hamir Raga use the higher pitched Shuddha Dha but Khamaj Raga and kafi Raga use the lower pitched Shuddha Dha
    D
    • (Komal) Dha
    • (Komal) Dha
    Either of these two Shruti could be Komal Dha. For example, Puria Dhanashri raga uses the higher pitched Komal Dha but Bhairav raga uses the lower pitched Komal Dha
    P
  • Pa
  •  
    M'
    • (Teevra) Ma
    • (Teevra) Ma
    • (Teevra) Ma
    Either of these three Shruti could be Teevra Ma. Because Pa is a fixed note, these Shruti are all Teevra Ma. Examples: Yaman Raga uses the highest Teevra ma, Basant Raga uses the middle Teevra Ma pitch and Lalit Raga uses both the lowest Teevra Ma pitch and the middle Teevra Ma pitch.
    M
  • (Shuddha) Ma
  •  
    G
    • (Shuddha) Ga
    • (Shuddha) Ga
    Either of these two Shruti could be Shuddha Ga. Since Ma already has its Teevra ma Shruti as Vikrita Svara, these Shruti are in the Ga domain. Yaman Raga (for example) uses the higher pitched Shuddha Ga but Bihag Raga uses the lower pitched Shuddha Ga.
    G
    • (Komal) Ga
    • (Komal) Ga
    Either of these two Shruti could be Komal Ga. A good example of the use of these two Komal Ga is found in Darbari Kanada Raga. In this Raga, when G is used after R with the intention of descending thereafter (for example to, say, D), the lower of the two Komal Ga pitches is used. But when the intention is to advance to M, the higher of the two Komal Ga is used.

    Another example is Malkauns Raga, where the lower Komal Ga is used in descending phrases but the higher Komal Ga is used in ascending passages.

    Again, the Komal Ga of Miyan-Ki-Malhar Raga is higher than that of Darbari Kanada.
    R
    • (Shuddha) Re
    • (Shuddha) Re
    Either of these two Shruti could be Shuddha Re.
    R
    • (Komal) Re
    • (Komal) Re
    Either of these two Shruti could be Komal Re. For example, Shree and Marva Raga use the higher pitched Komal Re but Bhairav and Bhairavi Raga use the lower pitched Komal Re.
    S
  • Sa
  •  

    It is important to understand that the use of Shruti as shown in the above table is merely a guide. The actual articulation of the notes in a performance will use even finer Shruti. For example, the note M in Bhairava Raga can actually sometimes "lean" just that little bit higher than its normal Shuddha position without quite encroaching into the Teevra Ma domain. Furthermore, the same note in a given Raga may well be subtly different at different times, even for the same performer during a single performance and for that selfsame performer at different times. This is the reason why a "scientific" study of Shruti in Hindustani music as performed, using pitch measuring instruments like an oscilloscope, is doomed to fail right from the start, because it negates the very foundations of the concept of the use of Shruti.

    This is one important reason why Hindustani music is referred to as "Gurumukhi Vidya" (pronunciation: GU-RU-mu-khi VId-yaa, "u" as in "put"), meaning a discipline ("Vidya") that may be properly learnt only from the mouth ("Mukhi") of the Teacher ("Guru").

    Ornaments:

    Ornaments or embellishments are vital components in Hindustani music. Remove the ornaments and the music dies.

    The act of ornamentation is called "Alankarana" (pronunciation: uh-LUN-kuh-run-uh). It means to beatify. Alankarana comprises Raga Alankarana (melodic ornamentation), Tala Alankarana (rhydhmic ornamentation) and Nartana Alankarana (dance ornamentation - in musicological texts, it is made clear that music comprises vocal music, instrumental music and dance). Here we shall consider only Raga Alankarana.

    Raga Alankarana may use two kinds of ornaments:

    • Varnayukta (pronunciation: VUR-nuh-yuk-tuh, the "u" in "yuk" as in "put", all other "u" as in "but") Alankara (pronunciation: uh-LUN-kaa-ruh) (Alankara means ornament): Varna means a short group of notes. This kind of ornamentation is using small note groups in particular and attractive ways within the Raga context.
    • Varnatirikta (pronunciation: VUR-naa-ti-RIK-tuh) Alankarana, also called Shuddha Alankara or Shabdalankara (pronunciation: SHUB-daa-lun-kaar-uh): This kind of ornamentation does not use note groups but embellishes the notes themselves by means of dynamics, glissandi, grace notes, accents, use of different vowels and tonal variances, and so on.
    Each of these two main classifications has sub-varieties which in turn have further groups and subgroups within them. The total number of such Alankarana and Alankara adds up to several scores. A full description is beyond the scope of this article but may be found in Prof. Basavi Mukerji's book "Improvisation in Hindustani Classical Music".

    In the following list of Raga descriptions, notes are referred to by means of their modern conventional symbols: S, N, D and so on.


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    Adana - pronunciation: a-DAAH-naa. A Raga for the third quarter of the night. Traditionally a Raga that often follows Darbari. Uses notes similar to those of Darbari with the addition of the N. Of course, the manner of using the notes and their relative emphases are as different from those of Darbari as the proverbial chalk from cheese. The Geeti is also different (see explanation below under Raga Shuddha Kalyan for meaning of Geeti). Darbari is a Shuddha Geeti (Gaurhar Bani) Raga while Adana is Besara Geeti Raga. The general ascending and descending order of notes is: S-R-M-P-N-S | S-N-D-N-P-M-G-M-R-S


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    Bahar - pronunciation: Ba-HAAR. A Besara Geeti Raga (see explanation below under Raga Shuddha Kalyan for meaning of Geeti) associated with the spring season, when it may be performed at any time. In other seasons, it is a Raga for the third quarter of the night. The general ascending and descending order of notes is: S-M-P-G-M-D-N-S | S-N-P-M-P-G-M-R-S


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    Bilaval - pronunciation: be-LAA-vul ("u" as "u" in "put"). A late morning Raga. Uses Shuddha notes. Avoids the Ma while ascending. While descending follows a somewhat convulated order of notes. The general ascending and descending order of notes is: S-R-G-P-D-N-S | S-N-D-P-G-P-M-G-M-R-S


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    Bhairav - pronunciation: BHAI-ruv ("u" as "u" in "hut"). An very important early morning Raga evocating great serenity and introspection. Uses R and D. Mostly avoids R during ascent. The ornament Andolan is applied on R and D. M is decidedly more prominent than P (if P becomes more prominent than M, Raga Ramkali would begin to be felt). Akin to the Byzantine scale used in western music. The general ascending and descending order of notes is: N-S-G-M-P-D-N-S | S-N-D-P-M-G-R-S


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    Bhairavi - pronunciation: BHAI-ruvee ("u" as "u" in "hut"). Another early morning Raga. Often used in light classical forms like Thumri, Bhajan etc. Bhairavi is also conventionally the concluding item of a concert, regardless of when the concert ends. As such, it is not good manners to perform a piece set to Bhairavi if there is another artiste to follow with his or her recital. Uses R, G, D and N. As a melodic base for a light classical item, it can also use all the twelve notes of the heptad. The manner and context in which the notes are used bring up the strong and unmistakable Bhairavi flavour in the hands of a skilled performer. The general ascending and descending order of notes is: N-S-G-M-P-D-N-S | S-N-D-P-M-G-R-S


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    Bhoopali - pronunciation: BHOO-paali. Known as Dombakri (pronunciation: DOME-bu-kree) in ancient times. A pentatonic Raga avoiding M and N. An evening Raga. The D of the lower register is strong but that of the middle register is weak. If the middle register D (i.e., the one below the high S) is made prominent, with the high tonic preceding it as a Krintan, the flavour of Bhoopali will be lost and the Raga Deshkar (pronunciation: Desh-car) will emerge. Bhoopali is a Shuddha Geeti (Dagur Bani variant) Raga as opposed to Raga Shuddha Kalyan, which is a Shuddha Geeti (Gaurhar Bani variant) Raga. (see explanation below under Raga Shuddha Kalyan for meaning of Geeti). The general ascending and descending order of notes is: S-R-G-P-D-S | S-D-P-G-R-S


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    Darbari Kanada - pronunciation: Dur-BAA-ri KAA-nu-daa. Often referred to simply as Darbari. A Raga for the middle of the night, Darbari was created by the legendary musician/musicologist Tansen, who lived in the 16th century AC and was the court musician of the emperor Akbar. The greatness of Tansen lies not only in that he was a scholar, a master singer and a virtuoso Vina (a stringed instrument) player but more so because he successfully eradicated the Islamisation of music started in the 12th century AC by Amir Khusrau and brought it back to its original Hindu roots. The Raga Darbari is too complex to be described in a short space such as here. It is arguably the grandest of the nighttime Ragas and one that is unfailingly held in the greatest veneration by all, musicians and informed laymen alike, requiring as it does a great deal of musical maturity to bring out its subtlest nuances successfully. It uses G, D and N. The general ascending and descending order of notes is: S-R-G-M-P-D-N-S (or, alternatively, S-R-M-P-<>D-N-S) | S-N-D-N-P-M-G-M-R-S (or, alternatively, S-D-N-P-M-P-G-M-R-S)


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    Jaunpuri - pronunciation: JAUN-puri ("u" of "puri" as "u" in "put"). A late morning Raga using the same notes as does Darbari. However, the order of notes is different, as also the Shrutis used. Avoids G while ascending. The general ascending and descending order of notes is: S-R-M-P-D-N-S (or, alternatively, S-R-M-P-D-S) | S-N-D-P-M-G-R-S


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    Kedar - pronunciation: KE-daar. An early night Raga. It uses both M and M'. When ascending, it avoids R, going from S straight to M, falling back on G and thereafter rising to P. G is weak and always used in this way. A very lyrical Raga. The general ascending and descending order of notes is: S-M-G-P-M'-P-D-N-S | S-N-D-P-M'-P-D-P-M-R-S (or, alternatively, N-S-D-P-M'-P-D-P-M-S-R-S). Many ascending and descending routes are possible, including the use of N in specific ways. (Ask for Dr. Rath's rendering of this Raga on CD.)


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    Malhar - pronunciation: Mul-HAAR. This is a family of Ragas, associated with the rainy season. During this season, these Ragas can be performed at any time of the day or night but in other seasons they become night-time Ragas only. Their ker phrases are M-R-P and N-P. Their descending phrases are stronger than their ascending phrases. If this order is reversed, the Sarang pronunciation: SAA-rung group of Ragas will begin to emerge. Of course, there are important Geeti differences between the Malhar and the Sarang group, too.


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    Marva - pronunciation: MAAR-vaa. An early evening hexatonic Raga. Avoids P and uses R, albeit the highest Shruti of this note, just below R. It also uses D and M'. The predominant notes are D and the R. G and N are weak notes, used more as passing notes or auxiliaries. A Raga more authentically to be found amongst Hindu rather than Muslim singers (in spite of Ustad Amir Khan's famous rendering on LP -- this author believes that too much hype has been attributed to this LP), unlike the Raga Puria which uses similar notes but where the Shrutis and emphases are entirely different and which is more a Muslim rather than a Hindu Raga. The general ascending and descending order of notes is: S-R-G-M'-D-N-S | S-N-D-M'-G-R-S


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    Puria - pronunciation: PU-riaa ("u" as "u" in "put"). An evening Raga, using the same notes as does Marva but with important differences in Geeti and the emphases of notes. Thus, R and D of Puria are considerably flatter than those of Marva. Puria voids S while ascending, going from N to R (taking R "from above", i.e., with the hint of G as a Krintan before R) and continuing to G without halting on R. The D too gets similar treatment. A Raga more favoured by Muslim musicians. The general ascending and descending order of notes is: N-R-G-M'-D-N-S | S-N-D-M-G-N-R-S


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    Ramkali - pronunciation: RAAM-kulee. A morning Raga, similar to Bhairav. However, unlike Bhairav, it uses both M and M' and both N and N. Also, there are important Shruti differences between the two Ragas. The general ascending and descending order of notes is: S-R-G-M-P-D-N-S | S-N-D-P-M'-P-D-N-D-P-M-G-R-S


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    Sarang - pronunciation: SAA-rung. This is another family of Ragas, presented during the late morning or early afternoon.


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    Shree - pronunciation: SHREE. Another early evening Raga. Uses the same versions of R and D as does Marva. Shree uses P predominantly, in conjunction with R. Like Marva, this is another Hindu Raga. The general ascending and descending order of notes is: S-R-M'-P-N-S | S-N-D-P-M'-G-R-S


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    Shuddha Kalyan - pronunciation: SHU-ddha ("U" as "u" in "put") KUL-yaan. An early to middle night Raga. The word Shuddha refers to one of five "Geeti" or musical styles stated in ancient treatises: Shuddhaa, Bhinnaa, Gaudi, Besaraa and Saadhaarani. Out of these five styles grew the five Bani or styles of Dhrupad -- Gaurhar, Dagur, Khandar, Nauhar and Mishra. Gaudi Geeti is now no longer in vogue and was prevelant in the Gondwana region of Madhya Pradesh province of India and not, as some scholars of Bengal would have us believe, in Bengal (these scholars draw their inference merely from the name Gaudi bearing a resemblance to an early name -- Gaud -- of a part of Bengal, forgetting that the special and characteristic ornament of Gaudi Geeti was Ohaati which was never ever prevelant in Bengal but was and is still to be found in parts of Madhya Pradesh and Chattisgardh provinces).

    Shuddha Geeti gave rise to Gaurhar Bani (a style with Meend) and Dagur Bani (a style without Meend, and having nothing to do with the Dagar family of Dhrupad singers). Shuddha Kalyan is a Gaurhar Bani Raga, hence it demands the plentiful use of Meend. It uses the same notes as does Bhoopali except that while descending it uses the leading note also.

    As for the other Geeti, Bhinnaa used plenty of light Gamak, Besaraa (an abbreviated form of the word Begasvaraa) was a style comprising fast movements and Saadhaarani was a mixture of the other four Geeti. Bhinna Geeti gave rise to Khandar Bani, Besara Geeti gave rise to Nauhar Bani and Saadhaarani Geeti gave rise to Mishra Bani.


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    Sohini - pronunciation: SO-he-nee. A Raga for the final quarter of the night, Sohini uses the same notes as do Marva and Puria, but the emphasis -- indeed the sole tonal centre -- is the high S.


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    Todi - pronunciation: TOH-dee. An early morning Raga, using the R, G, M' and D. Often avoids P while ascending. The general ascending and descending order of notes is: S-G-R-G-M'-D-N-S | S-N-D-P-M'-D-M'-G-R-G-R-S


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